Table 2

Names, life forms, local uses, collection period and additional local uses of wild edible plants in five districts of central and western Nepal
Latin name, Botanical family and Growth habit Vernacular name(s) Local use(s) (edible only) Collection period Additional local use(s)

Acacia rugata (Lam.) Voigt

Leguminosae, Climber

Sikakai (Np.); Aila (Mag.); Lashiur (Thr.) Young shoots used to make pickle or cooked as vegetable. June-August Fruits used as detergent.

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa*

Rutaceae, Tree

Bel (Np.); Ber (Thr.) Pulp of ripe fruits eaten fresh and also taken as syrup. March-June Plant of ritual importance. Fruit juice used as fish poisoning. Unripe fruits taken to treat diarrhoea.

Antidesma acidum Retz.

Euphorbiaceae, Tree

Dakhi (Thr.) Fruits edible. Young leaves used to make pickle. September-May Leaves used as fodder.

Ardisia macrocarpa Wall.

Myrsinaceae, Tree

Paniphal (Np.); Damarai (Thr.) Ripe fruits edible. August-September -

Arisaema tortuosum (Wall) Schott

Araceae, Herb

Baanko (Np.) Aerial parts used as vegetable. April-July -

Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.

Moraceae, Tree

Badahar (Np.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. Young shoots cooked as vegetable. June-August Leaf juice used to make fermenting material locally called "Marcha". Leaves used as fodder.

Asparagus racemosus Willd*

Liliaceae, Herb

Kurilo, Jhirjhire kanda (Np.); Kurla (Thr.) Tender shoots eaten as vegetable or used to make pickle. June–July -

Bambusa arundinacea Willd*

Poaceae, Herb

Bans (Np.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. June-August Leaf juice used to treat jaundice. Root juice used in otitis “Kan pakne”.

Bambusa nepalensis Stapleton*

Poaceae, Herb

Choya bans (Np.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. June-August -

Bauhinia purpurea L

Leguminosae, Tree

Tanki (Np., Bk.) Flowers and young shoots eaten as vegetable. March-May Leaves used as fodder.

Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn.

Leguminosae, Climber

Bhorla (Np.); Malu, Namarain, Moharain (Thr.) Pods eaten as vegetable. Fruits edible. August-February Stem bark used to make ropes. Leaves used to make umbrella “Ghoom” and traditional plates “Duna” and “Tapari” for ritual functions. Bark juice used as fermenting material and to cure blood dysentery.
Bauhinia variegata L.* Leguminosae, Tree Koiralo (Np.); Koilar (Thr.) Young shoots and leaves eaten as vegetable. Flowers eaten as vegetable or used to make pickle. March-May -

Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.*

Cucurbitaceae, Climber

Kubhindo (Np., Bk.) Fruits used to make pickle or vegetable. August-November -

Bombax ceiba L.

Bombacaceae, Tree

Simal (Np.); Samura, Semara (Thr.) Young flowers eaten as vegetable. December-March Seeds used to make yeast and to treat abdomen pain. Young flowers used as fodder.

Buchanania latifolia Roxb. M.R. Almeida*

Anacardiaceae, Tree

Piyar, Piyari (Thr.) Young shoots eaten raw. Fruits edible. May-June Leaves used as fodder.

Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston

Leguminosae, Shrub

Karauji, Kanja (Thr.) Fruits edible. April-September -

Capparis spinosa L.

Capparaceae, Shrub

Baganchuwa (Thr) Young shoots used to make pickle or vegetable. October-November -

Carissa carandas L.

Apocynaceae, Shrub

Chutro (Np.); Karaudi (Thr.) Fruits edible. June-July Root juice used in abortion.

Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC.*

Fagaceae, Tree

Katus (Np.); Katwas, Jheru (Mag.) Fruits edible. Young shoots eaten as vegetable. September–November Leaves used as fodder.

Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm.*

Lauraceae, Tree

Tejpat (Np.) Leaves and bark used as spices. October-December Leaves used as fodder.

Cissus javana DC.

Vitaceae, Climber

Jogi lahara (Np.) Leaves used to make pickle. September-November -

Cleome viscosa L.

Cleomaceae, Herb

Ban tori (Np.) Seeds used as spice. September-November -

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt

Cucurbitaceae, Climber

Gol kakri, Ban kakri (Np.) Fruits edible. July-December -

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott*

Araceae, Herb

Karkalo (Np., Bk.), Gabda (Thr.) Tuber and leaves eaten as vegetable. Whole year -

Crateva unilocularis Buch.-Ham*

Capparaceae, Tree

Sipligan (Np.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. January-March -

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn. ex Munro*

Poaceae, Herb

Tamabans (Np.) Tender shoots eaten as vegetables. September-October Shoots used to make flute “Basuri”.

Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.

Dilleniaceae, Tree

Agaie (Thr.) Young shoots and flowers eaten as vegetable. March-April -

Dioscorea bulbifera L.*

Dioscoreaceae, Climber

Githa (Np.) Fruits eaten as vegetable. November-December -

Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.*

Dioscoreaceae, Climber

Bhyakur (Np.) Tuberous roots eaten as vegetable. November-February -

Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel

Ebenaceae, Tree

Tendu, Tendak (Thr.) Fruits edible. April-May Leaves used to make cigarettes “Bidi”.

Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.*

Woodsiaceae, Herb

Neuro (Np.); Kochiya (Thr.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. April-June -

Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H.J. Lam*

Sapotaceae, Tree

Chiuri (Np.) Ripe fruits edible. April-July -

Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman

Musaceae, Herb

Ban kera (Np.) Fruits edible. September-December -

Ficus auriculata Lour.

Moraceae, Tree

Nebaro (Np.) Ripe figs edible. June–July Leaves and twigs used as fodder.

Ficus benghalensis L.

Moraceae, Tree

Bar (Np.); Bargad (Thr.) Ripe figs edible. April-June Milky latex used in scabies. Plant used as fodder, fuel-wood, and in religious functions.
Ficus hispida L.f. Moraceae, Tree Thote, Khasreto (Np.) Fruits edible or used to make pickle. June-September Leaves and twigs used as fodder.

Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham.

Moraceae, Tree

Kabro (Np.); Pakadi (Thr.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. March-May -

Ficus racemosa L.

Moraceae, Tree

Dumri (Np.); Daurai, Gullar (Thr.) Ripe figs edible. July-September Leaves and twigs used as fodder.

Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Moraceae, Tree

Bedulo (Np.) Ripe figs edible. July-September -

Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Moraceae, Tree

Khanneu, Khaniyo (Np.) Ripe figs edible. June–July Leaves and twigs used as fodder.

Grewia optiva J.R. Drumm. ex Burret

Tiliaceae, Tree

Phorsa, Phorshat (Thr.) Fruits edible. September-December -

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnaceae, Fungi

Chyau (Np., Bk.) Whole plant eaten as vegetable or used to make pickle. March-July -

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Anacardiaceae, Tree

Dabdabe (Np.); Jangra (Thr.) Fruits edible. July-October Leaf juice used in cuts.

Madhuca longifolia (J. König ex L.) J.F. Macbr.

Sapotaceae, Tree

Mahuwa (Thr.) Succulent flowers eaten fresh. Fruits edible. March-July Seed cake used as fish poisoning. Flower used to make local liquor. Leaves used as plates.

Mangifera indica L.*

Anacardiaceae, Tree

Aamp (Np.); Sathak (Mag.) Fruits eaten raw or used to make pickle. June-July Bark juice used in pneumonia and stomach disorders.

Manihot esculenta Crantz*

Euphorbiaceae, Shrub

Simal tarul (Np., Bk.) Tuberous roots eaten as vegetable. December–February -

Melastoma malabathricum L.

Melastomataceae, Shrub

Angeri (Np.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. July-December -

Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.

Cucurbitaceae, Climber

Ban karela (Np.) Fruits eaten as vegetable. August-November -

Moringa oleifera Lam.

Moringaceae, Tree

Sital chini, Saijan (Np.) Pods used as vegetable. April-June -

Morus nigra L.*

Moraceae, Tree

Kimbu (Np.) Fruits edible. May-July -

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.*

Rutaceae, Shrub

Karipatta, Boke (Np.); Binbinveria (Thr.) Leaves used as spices. Ripe fruits eaten fresh. June-August -

Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don*

Myricaceae, Tree

Kafal (Np.) Ripe fruits edible. March–June -

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl

Davalliaceae, Herb

Pani amala (Np.) Tuberous roots eaten as fruit. August-September -

Ocimum gratissimum L.

Lamiaceae, Herb

Ban tulsi (Bk.) Seeds edible. October-December -

Ophioglossum reticulatum L.*

Ophioglossaceae, Herb

Jibre saag (Np.); Ek patiya (Thr.) Young leaves used as vegetable. March–April -

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton

Lamiaceae, Herb

Silam (Np., Bk.) Roasted seeds used to make pickle. October-December -

Phoenix humilis Royle & Hook.f.

Palmae, Herb

Thakal (Np.); Khajuri (Thr.) Ripe fruits edible. Tuberous roots eaten as vegetable. February-May Leaves used as thatching material and as brooms. Fruits used in local liquor preparation.

Phyllanthus emblica L.*

Euphorbiaceae, Tree

Amala (Np.); Amar, Aura, Amalosa (Thr.) Fruits eaten fresh or used to make pickle. October-December Fruit paste used as fish poisoning. Fruits used in cough and cold.

Piper longum L.

Piperaceae, Herb

Pipla (Np.) Fruits edible. November-December Fruit powder used to treat cough and cold.

Remusatia vivipara (Roxb.) Schott

Araceae, Herb

Jaluko (Np., Thr.) Tender shoots eaten as vegetable. May-September -

Rhus javanica Miller

Anacardiaceae, Tree

Bhakmilo (Thr.) Fruits edible. November-March -
Rhus wallichii Hook.f Anacardaceae, Tree Kag bhalayo (Np.) Fruit pulp eaten. December-April -

Ricinus communis L.

Euphorbiaceae, Herb

Ander (Np.); Aril, Raine (Thr.); Renu (Mag.) Fruits used to make pickle. May-October Stem used in ear problems.

Rubus ellipticus Sm.*

Rosaceae, Shrub

Aiselu (Np.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. May–July Root juice used to treat typhoid and measles.

Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Merr.

Sapindaceae, Tree

Kusum (Np.); Kosam (Thr.) Pulp of ripe fruits edible. June-August Twigs used as fodder. Leaves used as fertilizer.

Semecarpus anacardium L.f.

Anacardiaceae, Tree

Bhalayo (Np.); Bhella, Bheli (Thr.) Fruits edible. November-March Seeds used to cure cut and wounds.

Smilax aspera L.

Smilacaceae, Climber

Kukurdaino (Np.) Young shoots used as vegetable. Flowers used to make pickle. September-October -

Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. ex D. Don

Smilacaceae, Climber

Kukurdaino (Np.) Young shoots used as vegetable. September-October -

Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz

Anacardiaceae, Tree

Amora (Np.); Amar (Thr.) Fruits edible and also used to make pickle. November-March -

Sterculia villosa Roxb.

Malvaceae, Tree

Odal (Np.) Fruits edible. June-August Bark fibre used to make ropes. Root power used as soda powder.

Symplocos pyrifolia Wall. ex G. Don

Symplocaceae, Tree

Kale kath (Np., Bk.) Fruits edible. July-August -

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels*

Myrtaceae, Tree

Jamun (Np.); Jamuni (Thr.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. May-August Bark juice used in abdominal pain, diarrhoea and as fish poison.

Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre

Rubiaceae, Tree

Perra (Thr.) Fruits used as vegetable. May-September -

Tectaria coadunata (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) C. Chr.*

Dryopteridaceae, Herb

Kalo neuro (Np.); Dhakurok (Mag.) Young leafy parts used as vegetable. May-June Root juice used in blood dysentery and “Gano”.

Tectaria zeylanica (Houtt.) Sledge

Ophioglossaceae, Herb

Mayur kutea (Np.); Dhagrajawa (Thr.) Leaves eaten as vegetable. March-April -

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.*

Combretaceae, Tree

Barro (Np.); Bahare (Thr.) Seed pulp edible. November-January Fruits used to prepare local wine. Fruit powder used in cough. Leaves used as plates.

Termitomyces eurhizus (Berk.) Heim.*

Tricholomataceae, Fungi

Chyau (Np., Bk.) Plant eaten as vegetable. June-September -

Tetrastigma serrulatum (Roxb.) Planch

Vitaceae, Climber

Pureni, Charchare jhar (Np.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. November-February Root juice used to treat wounds. Plant juice used in eye troubles. Leaves used as fodder.

Urtica dioica L.

Urticaceae, Herb

Sisnu (Np.) Young shoots taken as vegetable. Whole year -

Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.*

Rhamnaceae, Shrub

Bayer (Np.) Fruits eaten raw or used to make pickle. October-March Bark juice and stem nodule used in dysentery. Roots used to make fermenting material. Fruit paste used as fish poisoning.

Zizyphus rugosa Lam.*

Rhamnaceae, Tree

Rukh bayer (Np.) Fruits edible. December-February Stem juice used to treat swelling legs. Fruit paste used as fish poisoning.

*Species with commercial value.

Np. Nepali name; Thr. Tharu name; Bk. Bankariya name

Uprety et al.

Uprety et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2012 8:16   doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-16

Open Data